The English language contains many words that are spelled with letters that are not pronounced. A few examples include knife, depot, and comb. These types of words do not follow logical rules and simply need to be memorized by students through drills and practice in class.
Here are the basic rules for silent letters in words:
- Silent “g” is followed by “n.” (gnome, gnaw, campaign, lasagna, sign, etc.)
- Silent “u” can be followed by “e” or “i.” (build, guitar, biscuit, guide, silhouette, etc.)
- Silent “w” is usually followed by “r” or “h.” (write, whole, who, wrong, wrist, etc.)
- Silent “n” comes after “m.” (column, autumn, hymn, condemn, etc.)
- Silent “b” can follow ‘m’ or be followed by “t.” (climb, doubt, bomb, lamb, debt, etc.)
- Silent “t” usually comes after “f” or “s.” (listen, castle, soften, wrestle, etc.)
- Silent “h” can follow “c,” “g,” “k,” “r” or “w.” (chaos, ghost, khaki, rhyme, what, etc.)
- Silent “k” is followed by “n.” (know, knife, knit, knock, knob, etc.)
The following list shows examples of words with a silent letter, except for one. Can you tell which one?
In each of these words, the “gh” is silent, except for the word “tough” in which the “gh” takes the sound of /f/.
Showing students groups of words like these is a good way for them to practice distinguishing silent letters. Here is an example worksheet students can complete after a presentation on silent letters:
Silent Letters Worksheet
Use the silent letter rules to complete the following words:
Silent Letters Worksheet # 2
In this exercise, students are provided with a text containing several words with silent letters, which they practice reading aloud.
There are three gnomes who live in a castle built on top of a mountain. Every day, they climb down the mountain to go to school, following the signs that lead the way there. When they get inside, they listen to their teacher. If they do well on tests, they are rewarded with a biscuit to fill up their stomachs. But if they drop any crumbs on the floor, they have to kneel down on one knee and say, “Sorry.” In Autumn, the three gnomes stay home from school and learn how to play the guitar because the weather is too cold to ascend the mountain.
Intonation is the way we use pitch when we speak. Intonation helps convey meaning, emotion, and mood beyond words. Changing the intonation of a sentence, while using the same exact words, can completely change its meaning.
If a friend says to you:
- the rising intonation on “like” means your friend is surprised that you would like a shirt like this
But if the intonation rises on “this:”
- it means your friend isn’t sure which shirt you’re talking about
If a friend says to you:
- the intonation rising on “that” means your friend had imagined your sister differently
But if the intonation rises on “your:”
- it means your friend thought it was someone else’s sister
Falling Intonation: When the pitch falls at the end of a sentence, indicating that it is coming to an end.
“He wants to go buy some
Falling intonation is used for:
- Declarative statements:
- “I need to get a
- “My name is
- Imperative sentences
- “Go to
- “Stop and
- “How nice of
- “It’s my birthd
- “What/Why/Where/When” questions:
- “Which country did you go to last
- “Why are you
Rising Intonation: When pitch rises and stays high at the end of a sentence, indicating that a question is being asked and a response is expected.
- “Do you think I
Rising intonation is found in:
- Yes/No questions
- “Did you finish your
- “Do you go to
- Expression of doubt
- “Are you sure it’s in
- Expression of surprise
- “Oh my goodness, you’re
Rise-Fall Intonation: There are several uses for a rising, then falling pitch, including, a) expecting or demanding agreement as in tag questions, b) when reinforcing adverbs expressed as after-thoughts, or c) if two statements or actions are part of a sequence of related events.
- Affirming Statements
- “Today is the
- “It’s a little
- Reinforcing Adverbs
- “They said they’d do whatever
- Two related actions
- “I am
- Listing (rise-rise-fall)
- “I have
In English there are neutral pitches, high pitches, and low pitches.
As shown in the examples above, many statements start with a neutral pitch. Depending on the purpose of speaking, the tone rises or falls. It’s actually a bit disconcerting to try and have a conversation with no pitch adjustments, and even harder if someone deliberately uses a different intonation than expected. Try it! This is one of the reasons EFL students often come across as uncommunicative. They might have good grammar and a variety of vocabulary, but if they haven’t developed a sense of intonation, they will lack effective communication.
Intonation can modify the meaning/purpose of what is said. Even the same sentence or word can be expressed differently by simply altering the intonation. Think of the different feeling that comes to mind when the greeting, “Hello,” is said with differing intonation:
- To the teacher (neutral tone/pitch)
- To a friend (rising upbeat tone/pitch)
- To a 6 month old baby (exaggerated fall-rise tone/pitch)
- To someone you don’t like (awkward falling tone/pitch)
- To a friend you haven’t seen in a long time (enthusiastic rising tone/pitch)
- To know if someone is there/listening on the phone (rising tone/pitch)
This type of activity can be practiced in class with students to help reinforce the effect intonation has on meaning. In addition, their comprehension of spoken English will improve. They will start to pick up on sarcasm, humor, and purpose in conversation.